Women want sex Elizabeth

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Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. This article investigates the determinants of orgasm and sexual enjoyment in hookup and relationship sex among heterosexual college women and seeks to explain why relationship sex is better for women in terms of orgasm and sexual enjoyment.

We use data from women respondents to a large online survey of undergraduates at 21 U. We identify four general views of the sources of orgasm and sexual enjoyment—technically competent genital stimulation, partner-specific learning, commitment, and gender equality. We find that women have orgasms more often in relationships than in hookups.

More attention is thus given to producing female orgasm in relationships. The phrase is ambiguous, but most young people seem to agree that hooking up involves sexual activity, ranging from kissing to intercourse, outside of an exclusive relationship. This concern is based in part on the assumption that a committed relationship is the most likely context for pleasurable sex, especially for women. Research supports the claim that sex in committed relationships is better Laumann et al.

Because there is little empirical research on the quality of sex in heterosexual college hookups and relationships, we do not know if these patterns hold for this group. In fact, relatively little is known about the quality of sex among adolescents and young adults more generally, as most existing research focuses on explaining early sexual debut and detailing its negative consequences. This situation is unfortunate given that the vast majority of heterosexual Americans engage in premarital sex, and do so in contexts ranging from high to no commitment.

This article investigates orgasm and sexual enjoyment in hookup and relationship sex among heterosexual women college students. Some might see this decision as flowing from male-centered and medicalized views of sex and argue that women are not particularly concerned about orgasm Bancroft, Loftus, and Long ; Gavey, McPhillips, and Braun ; Nicholson and Burr ; Potts We did not want to assume, a priori, that women do not care about orgasm.

We use data from women respondents to an online survey of undergraduates at 21 public and private colleges and universities and from in-depth interviews at two universities. The survey data, although not derived from a probability sample, result from nearly full-population responses from the classes in which recruitment took place. To our knowledge, only one other survey includes detailed questions about practices in the last sexual event e.

Supplementation with in-depth interviews deepens our understanding of the differences between hookup and relationship sex. One view focuses on sexual practices, implicitly treating good sex as a technical accomplishment achieved through deploying the right practices to achieve genital stimulation. A second view focuses on relationship-specific skills acquired by a partner over time.

A third perspective sees good sex as a consequence of commitment and affection. Much past research on sexual practices and orgasm focuses only on committed couples Bancroft et al. Other research focuses on the relationship between sexual satisfaction and relationship context, ignoring sexual practices McNulty and Fisher ; Waite and Joyner ab. We develop hypotheses as we proceed.

Women want sex Elizabeth

This approach treats orgasm and sexual enjoyment as primarily a consequence of the delivery of competent genital stimulation. The nature of stimulation provided and its duration are expected to be highly associated with orgasm and sexual enjoyment. Studies find a strong association between form of stimulation and orgasm Fugl-Meyer et al. Men and women are more likely to orgasm if they engage in a greater of sexual practices Haavio-Mannila and Kontula ; Parish et al.

Women want sex Elizabeth

For women, oral or manual genital stimulation increases orgasm Bancroft ; Fugl-Meyer et al. Sexual knowledge increases sexual satisfaction, and health problems diminish it Carpenter, Nathanson, and Kim ; Parish et al. The technical approach focuses on the embodied character of sexuality. Viewing sexual problems as dysfunction and turning to pharmacological solutions goes even further by extracting sexuality from social life and placing it in the purview of biology.

This perspective le us to expect all sexual practices will be positively associated with orgasm in both hookups and relationships. It also le us to predict that observed differences between the probability that hookups and relationship events will lead to orgasm or satisfaction can be statistically ed for by differences in the sexual practices experienced in the two contexts.

Laumann and colleagues articulated a rational choice perspective on sexuality that sees individual sexual tastes as variable, so that it takes time to learn how to please a new partner, making sexual competence partner-specific rather than entirely portable. They argue that investing in learning to pleasure a particular partner is rational. Even so, Laumann and colleagues point out that finding a new partner is costly, which makes staying with a partner and learning to please that partner rational. But if, as we hypothesize, learning occurs even without commitment, then sex should get better with each event, even if the context is a hookup.

Women want sex Elizabeth

This version of the partner-specific experience perspective predicts that ongoing relationships will lead to orgasm more than hookups will, because the partners have more practice with each other. Furthermore, it predicts that first-time hookups with a particular partner will lead to orgasm less and be less enjoyable than later hookups with that partner, because less partner-specific learning has occurred.

This perspective sees sexual satisfaction as generated by the quality of the relationship. Commitment may be important because it brings trust in sexual exclusivity, a feeling of security in the future of the relationship, or because it often accompanies affection. Mutual affection may enhance sex whether or not it is accompanied by a long-term commitment. Waite and Joyner b find that men and women report greater emotional satisfaction in sexually exclusive relationships that they expect to last a long time.

Other scholars have found that relationship satisfaction influences sexual satisfaction and vice versa Christopher and Sprecher ; Parish et al. Some research focuses on relationship quality Bancroft et al.

Women want sex Elizabeth

Scholars have offered a variety of explanations for gender differences in how commitment and affection affect sexual satisfaction. For our analysis, this perspective generates the expectation that in either relationships or hookups, reported affection and commitment will be associated with orgasm and enjoyment. Scholars adopting this perspective often view gender differences in sexuality as a result of the operation of power.

Researchers point to explicit attempts to prevent female sexual satisfaction, such as female genital mutilation, and note that women often have little control over when and with whom they have sex and often lack access to contraception and other gynecological services. College women in the United States typically do not experience these harsh forms of gender inequality.

Women want sex Elizabeth

Even so, evidence suggests that gender inequality in sexuality persists on U. Rates of sexual assault appear to be high and resistant to change Fisher, Cullen, and Turner Little stigma remains associated with premarital sex in relationships, except among conservative religious groups Regnerusso the older version of the double standard, in which women are judged more harshly than men for having premarital sex, is largely dead. However, a new version of the sexual double standard, in which women who seek sexual pleasure outside of committed relationships are judged more harshly than men who do so, has emerged in its place Crawford and Popp ; Peterson and Hyde ; Risman and Schwartz Women participating in hookups may not feel entitled to communicate their sexual desires.

In relationships, men are more likely to invest in learning to please their partners, not only because of the presence of affection and commitment, but also because relationship sex is more egalitarian and less affected by the new double standard.

Women want sex Elizabeth

Given our analytic focus on sex between men and women, we did not utilize the 8 percent of these women who reported themselves to be lesbian, bisexual, or not sure or did not answer the question. This left us with a sample of 13, women. Our two analytic samples were overlapping subsets of these women.

The first sample included the 8, women who reported they had ever hooked up, and when asked about their most recent hookup, said that it was with a man. The second sample included the overlapping group consisting of the 7, women who reported a relationship of at least six months with a man. After deleting the 7 percent of cases with missing values on any of the variables in our relationship sexual event model, we were left with 6, cases for analysis. Most survey recruitment took place in classes. Almost all participating instructors gave students some course credit for taking the survey. To make the survey voluntary, students had the option of an alternative asment deed to take the same amount of time.

Virtually no one elected this option or to forgo the credit. Thus, the response rate in most classes was 99 to percent. Our sample was only 11 percent sociology majors, despite recruiting largely in sociology courses. We found few differences between sociology majors, technical majors computer science, engineering, natural science, and mathand other majors on items such as the percent who had an orgasm on the most recent hookup or who gave or received oral sex on the last hookup.

Major was thus not a source of non-representativeness, although students who choose sociology electives may differ from other students. Unfortunately, we cannot assess how much non-representativeness this introduces. Respondents were asked about their most recent hookup, if they had had one in college. They were also asked whether they had an orgasm and how much they enjoyed the sexual aspect of the event. Next, the women were asked about their most recent sexual occasion in their current or most recent relationship of at least six months. The two sets of questions did not elicit reports of the same event because the questions about the most recent hookup specified that we were asking about a hookup with someone with whom they were not already in a relationship.

The interviews, lasting approximately one hour, were with college seniors and asked about experiences with hooking up, dating, and relationships. We drew on male interviews for insight into how men treat women in hookups and relationships. Fifty-one of the 68 Stanford respondents 26 women, all 25 men were recruited from a probability sample of college seniors, with a response rate of approximately 50 percent during to Our goal was to delve into the meanings of sex for this population and to identify social processes, rather than to provide representative incidence statistics.

Thus, to achieve more diversity in the sample, we added a convenience sample from Indiana 17 as well as more women from a convenience sample from Stanford during to Interviewers were graduate and undergraduate students because we felt that similarity of age and student status would facilitate rapport. This may have led male respondents to underreport attitudes and behaviors that they thought might offend the female interviewers. Interviews were conducted in a private place on campus selected by the respondent. Using a semi-structured interview guide and a conversational manner, interviewers led respondents through their college years, asking about hookups, dates, and relationships in each year and in the summers between academic years.

Respondents were asked about their experiences with orgasm as they described specific events, and also their experiences with and views on orgasm in more general terms toward the end of the interview. They were explicitly asked whether sex was better in hookups or relationships, and more generally about the advantages and disadvantages of being in a relationship versus being open to hookups. In models predicting orgasm, we estimated four regression models: one for all hookup events, one for only the hookup events that included intercourse, one for all relationship sexual events, and one for only the relationship events that included intercourse.

We provided separate models for events that included intercourse which are a minority of all hookup events but the vast majority of relationship events because effects of other sexual practices may be different when intercourse is present. In models predicting sexual enjoyment, we have three nested models for each of the four cases mentioned above. We also used regression to compute predicted orgasm probabilities under specified assumptions of interest. We show the predicted probability of orgasm with and without selected sexual practices, taken one at a time, while holding all other variables which can be thought of as control variables for the purpose of the exercise at their sample means.

Women want sex Elizabeth

By holding all variables at their sample means except the variable whose effect on the probability of orgasm is being assessed, show how the presence or absence of that practice affects the probability of orgasm in a population that has the distribution on each other variable of our sample. In the case of setting each of a set of dummy control variables to their means, we computed the probability of orgasm for a population that has the proportion in each category of the dummy variables of our sample. This entailed substituting means on measures of the selected variables from the sample of relationship events into the regression equation for hookups.

We did this one variable at a time, as well as for a group of variables combined, again holding all other variables at their hookup means.

Women want sex Elizabeth

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